PHP style guide coding standards

All rules and guidelines in this document apply to PHP files unless otherwise noted. References to PHP/HTML files can be interpreted as files that primarily contain HTML, but use PHP for templating purposes.

The keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

Most sections are broken up into two parts:

  1. Overview of all rules with a quick example
  2. Each rule called out with examples of do's and don'ts

Icon Legend:

· Space, Tab, Enter/Return

Table of Contents

  1. Files
    1. File Format
    2. Filename
  2. Skeleton
  3. PHP Tags
    1. Open Tag
    2. Close Tag
    3. Open/Close Tag
    4. Short Open Tag
    5. Short Echo Tag
  4. End of File
  5. Namespaces
    1. Namespace Declaration
    2. Namespace Name
    3. Multiple Namespaces
    4. Magic Constant
  6. Comments
    1. Single-line Comments
    2. Multi-line Comments
    3. Header Comments
    4. Divider Comments
    5. Comments
    6. Blocks of Code
    7. Ambiguous Numbers
    8. External Variables
  7. Includes
    1. Include/Require Once
    2. Parenthesis
    3. Purpose of Include
  8. Formatting
    1. Line Length
    2. Line Indentation
    3. Blank Lines
    4. Text Alignment
    5. Trailing Whitespace
    6. Keywords
    7. Variables
    8. Global Variables
    9. Constants
    10. Statements
    11. Operators
    12. Unary Operators
    13. Concatenation Period
    14. Single Quotes
    15. Double Quotes
  9. Functions
    1. Function Name
    2. Function Prefix
    3. Function Call
    4. Function Arguments
    5. Function Declaration
    6. Function Return
  10. Control Structures
    1. If, Elseif, Else
    2. Switch, Case
    3. While, Do While
    4. For, Foreach
    5. Try, Catch
  11. Classes
    1. Class File
    2. Class Namespace
    3. Class Name
    4. Class Documentation
    5. Class Definition
    6. Class Properties
    7. Class Methods
    8. Class Instance
  12. Best Practices
    1. Variable Initialization
    2. Initialization/Declaration Order
    3. Globals
    4. Explicit Expressions
    5. E_STRICT Reporting

1. Files

This section describes the format and naming convention of PHP files.

File Format

  1. Character encoding MUST be set to UTF-8 without BOM
    • Sublime.app → FileSave with EncodingUTF-8
  2. Line endings MUST be set to Unix (LF)
    • Sublime.app → ViewLine EndingsUnix

Filename

  1. Letters MUST be all lowercase
    • e.g. autoloader.php
  2. Words MUST be separated with a hyphen
    • e.g. app-config.php

Table of Contents

2. Skeleton

This section showcases a barebones PHP file with its minimum requirements.

Line by line breakdown:

  • Line 1: PHP open tag
  • Line 2: Blank line
  • Line 3: Your code
  • Line 4: Blank line
  • Line 5: PHP close tag
  • Line 6: Blank line
<?php
        
        // your code
        
        ?>
         

Table of Contents

3. PHP Tags

This section describes the use of PHP tags in PHP and PHP/HTML files.

  1. Open tag MUST be on its own line and MUST be followed by a blank line
    • i.e. <?php ...
  2. Close tag MUST NOT be used in PHP files
    • i.e. no ?>
  3. Open/close tag MUST be on one line in PHP/HTML files
    • i.e. <?php ... ?>
  4. Short open tag MUST NOT be used
    • i.e. <?<?php
  5. Short echo tag SHOULD be used in PHP/HTML files
    • i.e. <?php echo<?=

Table of Contents

1. Open Tag

Open tag MUST be on its own line and MUST be followed by a blank line.

Incorrect

<?php print_welcome_message();

↳ Incorrect because <?php is not on its own line.

<?php
        print_welcome_message();

↳ Incorrect because <?php is not followed by a blank line.

Correct

<?php
        
        print_welcome_message();

PHP Tags

2. Close Tag

Close tag MUST NOT be used in PHP files.

Incorrect


        
        <?php
        
        print_welcome_message();
        
        ?>
        
        

↳ Incorrect because ?> was used.

Correct

<?php
        
        print_welcome_message();

PHP Tags

3. Open/Close Tag

Open/close tag MUST be on one line in PHP/HTML files.

Incorrect

<div>
            <h1><?php
            print_welcome_message();
            ?></h1>
        </div>

↳ Incorrect because <?php and ?> are not on one line.

Correct

<div>
            <h1><?php print_welcome_message(); ?></h1>
        </div>

PHP Tags

4. Short Open Tag

Short open tag MUST NOT be used.

Incorrect

<?
        
        print_welcome_message();

↳ Incorrect because <? was used instead of <?php.

Correct

<?php
        
        print_welcome_message();

PHP Tags

5. Short Echo Tag

Short echo tag SHOULD be used in PHP/HTML files.

~ Acceptable

<div>
            <p><?php echo get_welcome_message(); ?></p>
        </div>

↳ Acceptable, but <?= should be used over <?php echo when possible.

Preferred

<div>
            <p><?= get_welcome_message(); ?></p>
        </div>

PHP Tags

4. End of File

This section describes how every PHP file must end.

PHP close tag:

  • MUST be included at the end of a file
    • i.e. ?>
  • MUST be on its own line
    • i.e. ?>
  • MUST be surrounded by blank lines
    • i.e. ... ?>

Incorrect

<?php
        
        print_welcome_message();

↳ Incorrect because ?> is missing.

<?php
        
        print_welcome_message(); ?>

↳ Incorrect because ?> is not on its own line.

<?php
        
        print_welcome_message();
        ?>

↳ Incorrect because ?> is not surrounded by blank lines.

Correct

<?php
        
        print_welcome_message();
        
        ?>
         

Table of Contents

5. Namespaces

This section describes how to use one or more namespaces and their naming convention.

  1. Namespace declaration MUST be the first statement and MUST be followed by a blank line
    • i.e. <?php namespace MyCompany; ...
  2. Namespace name MUST start with a capital letter and MUST be camelcase
    • e.g. namespace MyCompany;
  3. Multiple namespaces MUST use the curly brace syntax
    • i.e. namespace MyCompany { ... }
  4. Magic constant SHOULD be used to reference the namespace name
    • i.e. __NAMESPACE__

Table of Contents

1. Namespace Declaration

Namespace declaration MUST be the first statement and MUST be followed by a blank line.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        print_welcome_message();
        
        namespace MyCompany;
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because namespace MyCompany; is not the first statement.

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany;
        print_welcome_message();
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because namespace MyCompany; is not followed by a blank line.

Correct

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany;
        
        print_welcome_message();
        
        ?>
         

Namespaces

2. Namespace Name

Namespace name MUST start with a capital letter and MUST be camelcase.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        namespace myCompany;
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because myCompany does not start with a capital letter.

<?php
        
        namespace MyCOMPANY;
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because MyCOMPANY is not written in camelcase.

Correct

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany;
        
        ?>
         

Namespaces

3. Multiple Namespaces

Multiple namespaces MUST use the curly brace syntax.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        namespace MyCompany\View;
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because there are two namespaces and the curly brace syntax was not used.

Correct

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model {
            // model body
        }
        
        namespace MyCompany\View {
            // view body
        }
        
        ?>
         

Namespaces

4. Magic Constant

Magic constant SHOULD be used to reference the namespace name.

~ Acceptable


        <?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model {
            // model body
        }
        
        namespace MyCompany\View {
            $welcome_message = MyCompany\View\get_welcome_message();
        }
        
        ?>
        

↳ Acceptable, but using __NAMESPACE__ instead of MyCompany\View is preferred.

Preferred

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model {
            // ModuleOne body
        }
        
        namespace MyCompany\View {
            $welcome_message = __NAMESPACE__ . '\\' . get_welcome_message();
        }
        
        ?>
         

Namespaces

6. Comments

This section describes how comments should be formatted and used.

  1. Single-line comments MUST use two forward slashes
    • e.g. // My comment
  2. Multi-line comments MUST use the block format
    • i.e. /** * My comment */
  3. Header comments SHOULD use the block format
    • i.e. /** * Name of code section */
  4. Divider comments SHOULD use the block format with asterisks in between
    • i.e. /** 75 asterisks */
  5. Comments MUST be on their own line
    • i.e. // My comment
  6. Blocks of code SHOULD be explained or summarized
    • e.g. // Compare user accounts from export against expired accounts in system
  7. Ambiguous numbers MUST be clarified
    • e.g. // 1,000 processable records per hour API limit
  8. External variables MUST be clarified
    • e.g. // Database object included in file.php

Table of Contents

1. Single-line Comments

Single-line comments MUST use two forward slashes.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        /* This is a comment */
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because it uses /* and */ for a single-line comment.

Correct

<?php
        
        // This is a comment
        
        ?>
         

Comments

2. Multi-line Comments

Multi-line comments MUST use the block format.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        // This is a
        // multi-line
        // comment
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because it uses // for a multi-line comment.

Correct

<?php
        
        /**
         * This is a
         * multi-line
         * comment
         */
        
        ?>
         

Comments

3. Header Comments

Header comments SHOULD use the block format.

<?php
        
        /**
         * Global application settings
         */
        
        define('SETTING_ONE', '');
        define('SETTING_TWO', '');
        define('SETTING_THREE', '');
        
        ?>
         

Comments

4. Divider Comments

Divider comments SHOULD use the block format with 75 asterisks in between.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        /**#######################################################################*/
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because it uses # instead of *.

<?php
        
        /*************/
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because it uses 10 instead of 75 *.

Correct

<?php
        
        /**
         * Beginning + Middle + End
         * 3 spaces + 75 spaces + 2 spaces = 80 character line limit
         */
        
        /******************************************************************************/
        
        ?>
         

Comments

5. Comments

Comment MUST be on their own line.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        print_welcome_message(); // Prints welcome message
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because // Prints welcome message is not on its own line.

Correct

<?php
        
        // Prints welcome message
        print_welcome_message();
        
        ?>
         

Comments

6. Blocks of Code

Blocks of code SHOULD be explained or summarized.

~ Acceptable

<?php
        
        foreach ($users as $user) {
            if ($expr1) {
                // ...
            } else {
                // ...
            }
            if ($expr2) {
                // ...
            } elseif ($expr3) {
                // ...
            } else {
                // ...
            }
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Acceptable, but block of code should be explained or summarized.

Preferred

<?php
        
        /**
         * Get active website bloggers with profile photo for author page.
         * If no photo exists on website, check intranet.
         * If neither location has photo, send user email to upload one.
         */
        foreach ($users as $user) {
            if ($expr1) {
                // ...
            } else {
                // ...
            }
            if ($expr2) {
                // ...
            } elseif ($expr3) {
                // ...
            } else {
                // ...
            }
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

Comments

7. Ambiguous Numbers

Ambiguous numbers MUST be clarified.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        while ($expr && $x < 1000) {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because 1000 is not clarified.

Correct

<?php
        
        // Script times out after 1,000 records
        while ($expr && $x < 1000) {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

Comments

8. External Variables

External variables MUST be clarified.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        include_once 'some-file.php';
        
        // ...
        
        foreach($users as $user) {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because source of $users is not clear.

Correct

<?php
        
        include_once 'some-file.php';
        
        // ...
        
        // $users from some-file.php
        foreach($users as $user) {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

Comments

7. Includes

This section describes the format for including and requiring files.

  1. Include/require once SHOULD be used
    • i.e. includeinclude_once, requirerequire_once
  2. Parenthesis MUST NOT be used
    • e.g. include_once('file.php');include_once 'file.php';
  3. Purpose of include MUST be documented with a comment
    • e.g. // Provides WordPress environment require_once 'wp-load.php';

Table of Contents

1. Include/Require Once

Include/require once SHOULD be used.

~ Acceptable

<?php
        
        include 'some-file.php';
        require 'some-other-file.php';
        
        ?>
         

↳ Acceptable, but _once should be appended to include and require if possible.

Preferred

<?php
        
        include_once 'some-file.php';
        require_once 'some-other-file.php';
        
        ?>
         

Includes

2. Parenthesis

Parenthesis MUST NOT be used.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        include_once('some-file.php');
        require_once('some-other-file.php');
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because include_once and require_once are used with parenthesis.

Correct

<?php
        
        include_once 'some-file.php';
        require_once 'some-other-file.php';
        
        ?>
         

Includes

3. Purpose of Include

Purpose of include MUST be documented with a comment.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        require_once 'some-file.php';
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because there is no comment as to what some-file.php does or provides.

Correct

<?php
        
        // Provides XYZ framework
        require_once 'some-file.php';
        
        ?>
         

Includes

8. Formatting

This section outline various, general formatting rules related to whitespace and text.

  1. Line length MUST NOT exceed 80 characters, unless it is text
    • i.e. |---- 80+ chars ----| → refactor expression and/or break list values
  2. Line indentation MUST be accomplished using tabs
    • i.e. function func() { ... }
  3. Blank lines SHOULD be added between logical blocks of code
    • i.e. ... ...
  4. Text alignment MUST be accomplished using spaces
    • i.e. $var · · · = ...;
  5. Trailing whitespace MUST NOT be present after statements or serial comma break or on blank lines
    • i.e. no ... · · · ...
  6. Keywords MUST be all lowercase
    • e.g. false, true, null, etc.
  7. Variables MUST be all lowercase and words MUST be separated by an underscore
    • e.g. $welcome_message
  8. Global variables MUST be declared one variable per line and MUST be indented after the first
    • e.g. global $var1, $var2;
  9. Constants MUST be all uppercase and words MUST be separated by an underscore
    • e.g. WELCOME_MESSAGE
  10. Statements MUST be placed on their own line and MUST end with a semicolon
    • e.g. welcome_message();
  11. Operators MUST be surrounded by a space
    • e.g. $total = 15 + 7;, $var .= '';
  12. Unary operators MUST be attached to their variable or integer
    • e.g. $index++, --$index
  13. Concatenation period MUST be surrounded by a space
    • e.g. echo 'Read:' . $welcome_message;
  14. Single quotes MUST be used
    • e.g. echo 'Hello, World!';
  15. Double quotes SHOULD NOT be used
    • e.g. echo "Read: $welcome_message";echo 'Read: ' . $welcome_message;

Table of Contents

1. Line Length

Line length MUST NOT exceed 80 characters, unless it is text.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        if(in_array('Slumdog Millionaire', $movies) && in_array('Silver Linings Playbook', $movies) && in_array('The Lives of Others', $movies) && in_array('The Shawshank Redemption', $movies)) {
            // if body
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because expression exceeds 80 characters and should be refactored.

<?php
        
        $my_movies = array('Slumdog Millionaire', 'Silver Linings Playbook', 'The Lives of Others', 'The Shawshank Redemption');
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because arguments exceed 80 characters and should be placed on their own line.

~ Acceptable

<?php
        
        $text = 'Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec posuere rutrum tincidunt. Duis lacinia laoreet diam, nec consectetur magna facilisis eget. Quisque elit mauris, auctor quis vulputate id, sagittis nec tortor. Praesent fringilla lorem eu massa convallis ultricies. Maecenas lacinia porta purus, sollicitudin condimentum felis mollis a. Proin sed augue purus. Quisque scelerisque eros vitae egestas porta. Suspendisse vitae purus justo. Pellentesque justo nunc, luctus quis magna sit amet, venenatis rutrum ante. Nam eget nisi ultricies, sodales lectus vel, luctus dui. Cras pellentesque augue vitae nulla laoreet convallis. Mauris ut turpis mollis, elementum arcu eu, semper risus. Mauris vel urna ut felis blandit dictum. Aliquam sit amet tincidunt arcu. Nunc et elit quam. Aliquam hendrerit magna ut lacus semper consequat blandit eu ipsum.';
        
        ?>
         

↳ Acceptable because line length was exceeded due to text, not code.

Correct

<?php
        
        $my_movies = array(
            'Slumdog Millionaire',
            'Silver Linings Playbook',
            'The Lives of Others',
            'The Shawshank Redemption'
        );
        
        $has_all_movies = true;
        
        foreach($my_movies as $my_movie) {
            if(!in_array($my_movie, $movies)) {
                $has_all_movies = false;
            }
        }
        
        if($has_all_movies) {
            // if body
        }
        
        $some_long_variable = get_something_else(
            'from_some_other_function',
            'another_long_argument'
        );
        
        ?>
         

Formatting

2. Line Indentation

Line indentation MUST be accomplished using tabs.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        function print_welcome_message() {
            echo WELCOME_MESSAGE;
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because spaces are used to indent echo WELCOME_MESSAGE; instead of a tab.

Correct

<?php
        
        function print_welcome_message() {
            echo WELCOME_MESSAGE;
        }
        
        ?>
         

Formatting

3. Blank Lines

Blank lines SHOULD be added between logical blocks of code.

~ Acceptable

<?php
        
        $my_movies = array(
            'Slumdog Millionaire',
            'Silver Linings Playbook',
            'The Lives of Others',
            'The Shawshank Redemption'
        );
        $has_all_movies = true;
        foreach($my_movies as $my_movie) {
            if(!in_array($my_movie, $movies)) {
                $has_all_movies = false;
            }
        }
        if($has_all_movies) {
            // if body
        }
        
        ?>

↳ Acceptable, but can make scanning code more difficult.

Preferred

<?php
        
        $my_movies = array(
            'Slumdog Millionaire',
            'Silver Linings Playbook',
            'The Lives of Others',
            'The Shawshank Redemption'
        );
        
        $has_all_movies = true;
        
        foreach($my_movies as $my_movie) {
            if(!in_array($my_movie, $movies)) {
                $has_all_movies = false;
            }
        }
        
        if($has_all_movies) {
            // if body
        }
        
        ?>
         

Formatting

4. Text Alignment

Text alignment MUST be accomplished using spaces.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        $movie_quotes = array(
            'slumdog_millionaire'		=> 'When somebody asks me a question, I tell them the answer.',
            'silver_linings_playbook'	=> 'I opened up to you, and you judged me.',
            'the_lives_of_others'		=> 'To think that people like you ruled a country.',
            'the_shawshank_redemption'	=> 'Get busy living, or get busy dying.'
        );
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because tabs are used instead of spaces to vertically align =>.

<?php
        
        $movie_quotes = array(
            'slumdog_millionaire'       => 'When somebody asks me a question, I tell them the answer.',
            'silver_linings_playbook'   => 'I opened up to you, and you judged me.',
            'the_lives_of_others'       => 'To think that people like you ruled a country.',
            'the_shawshank_redemption'  => 'Get busy living, or get busy dying.'
        );
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because spaces are used instead of tabs to indent array keys.

Correct

<?php
        
        $movie_quotes = array(
            'slumdog_millionaire'       => 'When somebody asks me a question, I tell them the answer.',
            'silver_linings_playbook'   => 'I opened up to you, and you judged me.',
            'the_lives_of_others'       => 'To think that people like you ruled a country.',
            'the_shawshank_redemption'  => 'Get busy living, or get busy dying.'
        );
        
        ?>
         

Formatting

5. Trailing Whitespace

Trailing whitespace MUST NOT be present after statements or serial comma break or on blank lines.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        $quotes_exist = false;  
        
        print_welcome_message();
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because there are two spaces after $quotes_exist = false;.

<?php
        
        $my_movies = array(
            'Slumdog Millionaire', 
            'Silver Linings Playbook', 
            'The Lives of Others', 
            'The Shawshank Redemption'
        );
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because there is a space after ,.

<?php
        
        $quotes_exist = false;
          
        print_welcome_message();
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because there are two spaces on the blank line below $quotes_exist = false;.

Correct

<?php
        
        $quotes_exist = false;
        
        print_welcome_message();
        
        ?>
         
<?php
        
        $my_movies = array(
            'Slumdog Millionaire',
            'Silver Linings Playbook',
            'The Lives of Others',
            'The Shawshank Redemption'
        );
        
        ?>
         

Formatting

6. Keywords

Keywords MUST be all lowercase.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        $is_true = FALSE;
        $is_false = TRUE:
        $movie_quote = NULL;
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because FALSE, TRUE and NULL are not all lowercase.

Correct

<?php
        
        $is_true = false;
        $is_false = true:
        $movie_quote = null;
        
        ?>
         

Formatting

7. Variables

Variables MUST be all lowercase and words MUST be separated by an underscore.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        $welcome_Message = '';
        $Welcome_Message = '';
        $WELCOME_MESSAGE = '';
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because $welcome_Message, $Welcome_Message and $WELCOME_MESSAGE are not all lowercase.

<?php
        
        $welcomemessage = '';
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because welcome and message are not separated with an underscore.

Correct

<?php
        
        $welcome_message = '';
        
        ?>
         

Formatting

8. Global Variables

Global variables MUST be declared one variable per line and MUST be indented after the first.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        global $app_config, $cache, $db_connection;
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because $app_config, $cache and $db_connection are together on one line.

<?php
        
        global $app_config,
        $cache,
        $db_connection;
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because $db_connection and $cache are not indentend once.

Correct

<?php
        
        global $app_config,
            $cache,
            $db_connection;
        
        ?>
         

Formatting

9. Constants

Constants MUST be all uppercase and words MUST be separated by an underscore.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        define('welcome_Message', '');
        define('Welcome_Message', '');
        define('welcome_message', '');
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because welcome_Message, Welcome_Message and welcome_message are not all uppercase.

<?php
        
        define('WELCOMEMESSAGE', '');
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because WELCOME and MESSAGE are not separated with an underscore.

Correct

<?php
        
        define('WELCOME_MESSAGE', '');
        
        ?>
         

Formatting

10. Statements

Statements MUST be placed on their own line and MUST end with a semicolon.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        $quotes_exist = false; print_welcome_message();
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because $quotes_exist = false; and print_welcome_message(); are on one line.

<div>
            <h1><?= print_welcome_message() ?></h1>
        </div>

↳ Incorrect because print_welcome_message() is missing a semicolon.

Correct

<?php
        
        $quotes_exist = false;
        print_welcome_message();
        
        ?>
         
<div>
            <h1><?= print_welcome_message() ?></h1>
        </div>

Formatting

11. Operators

Operators MUST be surrounded a space.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        $total=3+14;
        $string='Hello, World! ';
        $string.='Today is a good day!';
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because there is no space surrounding the =, + or .= sign.

Correct

<?php
        
        $total = 3 + 14;
        $string = 'Hello, World! ';
        $string .= 'Today is a good day!';
        
        ?>
         

Formatting

12. Unary Operators

Unary operators MUST be attached to their variable or integer.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        $index ++;
        -- $index;
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because there is a space before ++ and after --.

Correct

<?php
        
        $index++;
        --$index;
        
        ?>
         

Formatting

13. Concatenation Period

Concatenation period MUST be surrounded by a space.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        echo 'Hello, World! Today is '.$date.'!';
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because there is no space surrounding ..

Correct

<?php
        
        echo 'Hello, World! Today is ' . $date . '!';
        
        ?>
         

Formatting

14. Single Quotes

Single quotes MUST be used.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        echo "Hello, World!";
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because "Hello, World!" is not written with single quotes.

Correct

<?php
        
        echo 'Hello, World!';
        
        ?>
         

Formatting

15. Double Quotes

Double quotes SHOULD NOT be used.

~ Acceptable

<?php
        
        echo "Hello, World! Today is $date!";
        
        ?>
         

↳ Acceptable, but burries the $date variable, which is why single quotes are preferred.

<?php
        
        echo "Hello, World! He's watching movies and she's reading books.";
        
        ?>
         

↳ Acceptable when long pieces of text have apostrophies that would need to be escaped.

Preferred

<?php
        
        echo 'Hello, World! Today is ' . $date . '!';
        
        echo 'Hello, World! He\'s watching movies and she\'s reading books.';
        
        ?>
         

Formatting

9. Functions

This section describes the format for function names, calls, arguments and declarations.

  1. Function name MUST be all lowercase and words MUST be separated by an underscore
    • e.g. function welcome_message() {
  2. Function prefix MUST start with verb
    • e.g. get_, add_, update_, delete_, convert_, etc.
  3. Function call MUST NOT have a space between function name and open parenthesis
    • e.g. func();
  4. Function arguments
    • MUST NOT have a space before the comma
    • MUST have a space after the comma
    • MAY use line breaks for long arguments
    • MUST then place each argument on its own line
    • MUST then indent each argument once
    • MUST be ordered from required to optional first
    • MUST be ordered from high to low importance second
    • MUST use descriptive defaults
    • MUST use type hinting
    • e.g. func($arg1, $arg2 = 'asc', $arg3 = 100);
  5. Function declaration MUST be documented using phpDocumentor tag style and SHOULD include
    • Short description
    • Optional long description, if needed
    • @access: private or protected (assumed public)
    • @author: Author name
    • @global: Global variables function uses, if applicable
    • @param: Parameters with data type, variable name, and description
    • @return: Return data type, if applicable
  6. Function return
    • MUST occur as early as possible
    • MUST be initialized prior at top
    • MUST be preceded by blank line, except inside control statement
    • i.e. if (!$expr) { return false; }

Table of Contents

1. Function Name

Function name MUST be all lowercase and words MUST be separated by an underscore.

Incorrect


                
                <?php
        
        get_Welcome_Message();
        Get_Welcome_Message();
        GET_WELCOME_MESSAGE();
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because the function names are not all lowercase.

<?php
        
        getwelcomemessage();
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because get, welcome and message are not separated with an underscore.

Correct

<?php
        
        get_welcome_message();
        
        ?>
         

Functions

2. Function Prefix

Function prefix MUST start with verb.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        active_users();
        network_location($location1, $location2);
        widget_form($id);
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because functions are not prefixed with a verb.

Correct

<?php
        
        get_active_users();
        move_network_location($location1, $location2);
        delete_widget_form($id);
        
        ?>
         

Functions

3. Function Call

Function call MUST NOT have a space between function name and open parenthesis.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        print_welcome_message ();
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because there is a space between get_welcome_message and ().

Correct

<?php
        
        print_welcome_message();
        
        ?>
         

Functions

4. Function Arguments

Function arguments:

  • MUST NOT have a space before the comma
  • MUST have a space after the comma
  • MAY use line breaks for long arguments
  • MUST then place each argument on its own line
  • MUST then indent each argument once
  • MUST be ordered from required to optional first
  • MUST be ordered from high to low importance second
  • MUST use descriptive defaults
  • MUST use type hinting

Incorrect

<?php
        
        my_function($arg1 , $arg2 , $arg3);
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because there is a space before ,.

<?php
        
        my_function($arg1,$arg2,$arg3);
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because there is no space after ,.

<?php
        
        my_other_function($arg1_with_a_really_long_name,
            $arg2_also_has_a_long_name,
            $arg3
        );
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because $arg1_with_a_really_long_name is not on its own line.

<?php
        
        my_other_function(
        $arg1_with_a_really_long_name,
        $arg2_also_has_a_long_name,
        $arg3
        );
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because arguments are not indented once.

<?php
        
        function get_objects($type, $order = 'asc', $limit) {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because $type, $order and $limit are not in order of required to optional.

<?php
        
        function get_objects($limit, $order, $type) {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because $limit, $order and $type are not in order of importance.

<?php
        
        function get_objects($type, $order = true, $limit = 100) {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because true is not a descriptive default for $order.

<?php
        
        function add_users_to_office($users, $office) {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because $users and $office are missing their data type.

Correct

<?php
        
        my_function($arg1, $arg2, $arg3);
        
        my_other_function(
            $arg1_with_a_really_long_name,
            $arg2_also_has_a_long_name,
            $arg3
        );
        
        function get_objects($type, $order = 'asc', $limit = 100) {
            // ...
        }
        
        function add_users_to_office(array $users, Office $office) {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

Functions

5. Function Declaration

Function declaration MUST be documented using phpDocumentor tag style and SHOULD include:

  • Short description
  • Optional long description, if needed
  • @access: private or protected (assumed public)
  • @author: Author name
  • @global: Global variables function uses, if applicable
  • @param: Parameters with data type, variable name, and description
  • @return: Return data type, if applicable

Incorrect

<?php
        
        function my_function($id, $type, $width, $height) {
            // ...
            return $Photo;
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because my_function is not documented.

Correct

<?php
        
        /**
         * Get photo from blog author
         * 
         * Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut id volutpat 
         * orci. Etiam pharetra eget turpis non ultrices. Pellentesque vitae risus 
         * sagittis, vehicula massa eget, tincidunt ligula.
         *
         * @access private
         * @author Firstname Lastname
         * @global object $post
         * @param int $id Author ID
         * @param string $type Type of photo
         * @param int $width Photo width in px
         * @param int $height Photo height in px
         * @return object Photo
         */
        function my_function($id, $type, $width, $height) {
            // ...
            return $Photo;
        }
        
        ?>
         

Functions

6. Function Return

Function return:

  • MUST occur as early as possible
  • MUST be initialized prior at top
  • MUST be preceded by blank line, except inside control statement

Incorrect

<?php
        
        function get_object() {
            $var = false;
            if($expr1) {
                // ...
                if($expr2) {
                    // ...
                }
            }
        
            return $var;
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because get_object does not return as early as possible.

<?php
        
        function get_movies() {
            // ...
        
            return $movies;
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because $movies is not initialized at top.

<?php
        
        function get_movies() {
            $movies = array();
            // ...
            return $movies;
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because return $movies is not preceded by blank line.

Correct

<?php
        
        function get_object() {
            $var = false;
            if (!$expr1) {
                return $var;
            }
            if (!$expr2) {
                return $var;
            }
            // ...
        
            return $var;
        }
        
        ?>
         
<?php
        
        function get_movies() {
            $movies = array();
            // ...
        
            return $movies;
        }
        
        ?>
         

Functions

10. Control Structures

This section defines the layout and usage of control structures. Note that this section is separated into rules that are applicable to all structures, followed by specific rules for individual structures.

  • Keyword MUST be followed by a space
    • e.g. if (, switch (, do {, for (
  • Opening parenthesis MUST NOT be followed by a space
    • e.g. ($expr, ($i
  • Closing parenthesis MUST NOT be preceded by a space
    • e.g. $expr), $i++), $value)
  • Opening brace MUST be preceded by a space and MUST be followed by a new line
    • e.g. $expr) {, $i++) {
  • Structure body MUST be indented once and MUST be enclosed with curly braces (no shorthand)
    • e.g. if ($expr) { ... }
  • Closing brace MUST start on the next line
    • i.e. ... }
  • Nesting MUST NOT exceed three levels
    • e.g. no if ($expr1) { if ($expr2) { if ($expr3) { if ($expr4) { ... }}}}

In addition to the rules above, some control structures have additional requirements:

  1. If, Elseif, Else
    • elseif MUST be used instead of else if
    • elseif and else MUST be between } and { on one line
  2. Switch, Case
    • Case statement MUST be indented once
      • i.e. case 1:
    • Case body MUST be indented twice
      • i.e. func();
    • Break keyword MUST be indented twice
      • i.e. break;
    • Case logic MUST be separated by one blank line
      • i.e. case 1: ... break; case 2: ... break;
  3. While, Do While
  4. For, Foreach
  5. Try, Catch
    • catch MUST be between } and { on one line

Table of Contents

1. If, Elseif, Else

  • elseif MUST be used instead of else if
  • elseif and else MUST be between } and { on one line

Incorrect

<?php
        
        if ($expr1) {
            // if body
        } else if ($expr2) {
            // elseif body
        } else {
            // else body
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because else if was used instead of elseif.

<?php
        
        if ($expr1) {
            // if body
        }
        elseif ($expr2) {
            // elseif body
        }
        else {
            // else body
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because elseif and else are not between } and { on one line.

<?php
        
        $result1 = if ($expr1) ? true : false;
        
        if($expr2)
            $result2 = true;
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because structure body is not wrapped in curly braces.

Correct

<?php
        
        if ($expr1) {
            // if body
        } elseif ($expr2) {
            // elseif body
        } else {
            // else body
        }
        
        if ($expr1) {
            $result1 = true;
        } else {
            $result1 = false;
        }
        
        if ($expr2) {
            $result2 = true;
        }
        
        ?>
         

Control Structures

2. Switch, Case

  • Case statement MUST be indented once
  • Case body MUST be indented twice
  • Break keyword MUST be indented twice
  • Case logic MUST be separated by one blank line

Incorrect

<?php
        
        switch ($expr) {
        case 0:
            echo 'First case, with a break';
            break;
        
        case 1:
            echo 'Second case, which falls through';
            // no break
        case 2:
        case 3:
        case 4:
            echo 'Third case, return instead of break';
            return;
        
        default:
            echo 'Default case';
            break;
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because case 0 thru default are not indented once.

<?php
        
        switch ($expr) {
            case 0:
            echo 'First case, with a break';
            break;
        
            case 1:
            echo 'Second case, which falls through';
            // no break
            case 2:
            case 3:
            case 4:
            echo 'Third case, return instead of break';
            return;
        
            default:
            echo 'Default case';
            break;
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because echo, break and return are not indented twice.

<?php
        
        switch ($expr) {
            case 0:
                echo 'First case, with a break';
                break;
            case 1:
                echo 'Second case, which falls through';
                // no break
            case 2:
            case 3:
            case 4:
                echo 'Third case, return instead of break';
                return;
            default:
                echo 'Default case';
                break;
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because case 0, case 1 thru case 4, and default are not separated by one blank line.

Correct

<?php
        
        switch ($expr) {
            case 0:
                echo 'First case, with a break';
                break;
        
            case 1:
                echo 'Second case, which falls through';
                // no break
            case 2:
            case 3:
            case 4:
                echo 'Third case, return instead of break';
                return;
        
            default:
                echo 'Default case';
                break;
        }
        
        ?>
         

Control Structures

3. While, Do While

Correct

<?php
        
        while ($expr) {
            // structure body
        }
        
        do {
            // structure body;
        } while ($expr);
        
        ?>
         

Control Structures

4. For, Foreach

Correct

<?php
        
        for ($i = 0; $i < 10; $i++) {
            // for body
        }
        
        foreach ($iterable as $key => $value) {
            // foreach body
        }
        
        ?>
         

Control Structures

5. Try, Catch

Incorrect

<?php
        
        try {
            // try body
        }
        catch (FirstExceptionType $e) {
            // catch body
        }
        catch (OtherExceptionType $e) {
            // catch body
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because catch is not between } and { on one line.

Correct

<?php
        
        try {
            // try body
        } catch (FirstExceptionType $e) {
            // catch body
        } catch (OtherExceptionType $e) {
            // catch body
        }
        
        ?>
         

Control Structures

11. Classes

This section describes class files, names, definitions, properties, methods and instantiation.

  1. Class file MUST only contain one definition and MUST be prefixed with class-
    • i.e. class Userclass-user.php, class Officeclass-office.php
  2. Class namespace MUST be defined and MUST include vendor name
    • e.g. namespace MyCompany\Model;, namespace MyCompany\View;, namespace MyCompany\Controller;
  3. Class name MUST start with a capital letter and MUST be camelcase
    • e.g. MyCompany
  4. Class documentation MUST be present and MUST use phpDocumentor tag style
    • i.e. @author, @global, @package
  5. Class definition MUST place curly braces on their own line
    • i.e. class User { ... }
  6. Class properties
    • MUST follow variable standards
    • MUST specify visibility
    • MUST NOT be prefixed with an underscore if private or protected
    • e.g. $var1;, private $var2;, protected $var3;
  7. Class methods
    • MUST follow function standards
    • MUST specify visibility
    • MUST NOT be prefixed with an underscore if private or protected
    • e.g. func1(), private func2(), protected func3()
  8. Class instance
    • MUST start with capital letter
    • MUST be camelcase
    • MUST include parenthesis
    • e.g. $user = new User();, $OfficeProgram = new OfficeProgram();

Table of Contents

1. Class File

Class file MUST only contain one definition and MUST be prefixed with class-.

Incorrect

Filename: class-user.php

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class User
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        class Office
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because User and Office are defined in one file.

Filename: user.php

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class User
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because filename is not prefixed with class-.

Correct

Filename: class-user.php

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class User
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

Filename: class-office.php

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class Office
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

Classes

2. Class Namespace

Class namespace MUST be defined and MUST include vendor name.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        class User
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because there is no namespace defined.

<?php
        
        namespace Model;
        
        class User
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because vendor name is missing in the namespace name.

Correct

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class User
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

Classes

3. Class Name

Class name MUST start with a capital letter and MUST be camelcase.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class officeProgram
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because officeProgram does not start with a capital letter.

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class Officeprogram
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because Officeprogram is not camelcase.

Correct

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class OfficeProgram
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

Classes

4. Class Documentation

Class documentation MUST be present and MUST use phpDocumentor tag style.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class User
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because User is missing documentation.

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\View;
        
        /**
         * User View
         */
        class User
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because User is missing phpDocumentor tags.

Correct

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\View;
        
        /**
         * User View
         *
         * @author Firstname Lastname
         * @global object $post
         * @package MyCompany\API
         */
        class User
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

Classes

5. Class Definition

Class definition MUST place curly braces on their own line.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class User {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because { is not on its own line.

Correct

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class User
        {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

Classes

6. Class Properties

Class properties:

  • MUST follow variable standards
  • MUST specify visibility
  • MUST NOT be prefixed with an underscore if private or protected

Incorrect

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class User
        {
            // Public
            $var1;
        
            // Protected
            $var2;
        
            // Private
            $var3;
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because visibility is not specified for $var1, $var2 and $var3.

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class User
        {
            public $var1;
            protected $_var2;
            private $_var3;
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because protected and private properties are prefixed with _.

Correct

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class User
        {
            public $var1;
            protected $var2;
            private $var3;
        }
        
        ?>
         

Classes

7. Class Methods

Class methods:

  • MUST follow function standards
  • MUST specify visibility
  • MUST NOT be prefixed with an underscore if private or protected

Incorrect

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class User
        {
            // ...
        
            // Public
            function get_var1() {
                return $this->var1;
            }
        
            // Protected
            function get_var2() {
                return $this->var2;
            }
        
            // Private
            function get_var3() {
                return $this->var3;
            }
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because visibility is not specified for get_var1(), get_var2() and get_var3().

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class User
        {
            // ...
        
            public function get_var1() {
                return $this->var1;
            }
        
            protected function _get_var2() {
                return $this->var2;
            }
        
            private function _get_var3() {
                return $this->var3;
            }
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because protected and private methods are prefixed with _.

Correct

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class User
        {
            // ...
        
            public function get_var1() {
                return $this->var1;
            }
        
            protected function get_var2() {
                return $this->var2;
            }
        
            private function get_var3() {
                return $this->var3;
            }
        }
        
        ?>
         

Classes

8. Class Instance

Class instance:

Incorrect

<?php
        
        $office_program = new OfficeProgram;
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because new OfficeProgram is missing parenthesis.

Correct

<?php
        
        $office_program = new OfficeProgram();
        
        ?>
         

Classes

12. Best Practices

  1. Variable initialization SHOULD occur prior to use and SHOULD occur early
    • e.g. $var1 = '';, $var2 = 0;
  2. Initialization/declaration order
    • MUST lead with globals, follow with constants, conclude with local variables
    • MUST lead with properties and follow with methods in classes
    • MUST lead with public, follow with protected, conclude with private methods in classes
    • SHOULD be alphabetical within their type
    • i.e. global $var1;, define('VAR2', '');, $var3 = 0;
  3. Globals SHOULD NOT be used
    • i.e. no global $var;
  4. Explicit expressions SHOULD be used
    • e.g. if ($expr === false), while ($expr !== true)
  5. E_STRICT reporting MUST NOT trigger errors
    • i.e. do not use deprecated functions, etc.

Table of Contents

1. Variable Initialization

Variable initialization SHOULD occur prior to use and SHOULD occur early.

~ Acceptable

<?php
        
        $movies = get_movies();
        
        ?>
         

↳ Acceptable, but $movies should be initialized prior to use.

<?php
        
        if ($expr) {
            // ....
        }
        
        $movies = array();
        $movies = get_movies();
        
        ?>
         

↳ Acceptable, but $movies should be initialized earlier.

Preferred

<?php
        
        $movies = array();
        
        if ($expr) {
            // ....
        }
        
        $movies = get_movies();
        
        ?>
         

Best Practices

2. Initialization/Declaration Order

Initialization/declaration order:

  • MUST lead with globals, follow with constants, conclude with local variables
  • MUST lead with properties and follow with methods in classes
  • MUST lead with public, follow with protected, conclude with private methods in classes
  • SHOULD be alphabetical within their type

Incorrect

<?php
        
        define('ENVIRONMENT', 'PRODUCTION');
        
        $id = 0;
        
        global $app_config;
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because $app_config is not first, ENVIRONMENT not second, and $id not third.

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class Office
        {
            public function get_name() {
                // ...
            }
        
            private $name;
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because get_name() is declared before $name.

<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class Office
        {
            private $id;
            private $name;
            private $status;
        
            private function get_name() {
                // ...
            }
        
            public function get_id() {
                // ...
            }
        
            protected function get_status() {
                // ...
            }
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because get_id() is not first, get_status() not second, and get_name() not third.

~ Acceptable

<?php
        
        global $db_connection,
            $app_config,
            $cache;
        
        define('MODE', 1);
        define('ENVIRONMENT', 'PRODUCTION');
        
        $id = 0;
        $firstname = '';
        $lastname = '';
        
        ?>
         

↳ Acceptable, but the globals and constants should be in alphabetical order.

<?php
        
        function get_movies() {
            // ...
        }
        
        function get_actors() {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Acceptable, but get_actors should be declared before get_movies.

Correct

<?php
        
        global $app_config,
            $cache,
            $db_connection;
        
        define('ENVIRONMENT', 'PRODUCTION');
        define('MODE', 1);
        
        $id = 0;
        $firstname = '';
        $lastname = '';
        
        ?>
         
<?php
        
        namespace MyCompany\Model;
        
        class Office
        {
            private $id;
            private $name;
            private $status;
        
            public function get_id() {
                // ...
            }
        
            protected function get_status() {
                // ...
            }
        
            private function get_name() {
                // ...
            }
        }
        
        ?>
         

Preferred

<?php
        
        function get_actors() {
            // ...
        }
        
        function get_movies() {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

Best Practices

3. Globals

Globals SHOULD NOT be used.

~ Acceptable

<?php
        
        $pdo = new PDO('mysql:host=localhost;dbname=test', $user, $pass);
        
        function get_user($id) {
            global $pdo;
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Acceptable, but global variables should be avoided.

Preferred

<?php
        
        function get_database_object() {
            return new PDO('mysql:host=localhost;dbname=test', $user, $pass);
        }
        
        function get_user($id) {
            $pdo = get_database_object();
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

Best Practices

4. Explicit Expressions

Explicit expressions SHOULD be used.

~ Acceptable

<?php
        
        if ($expr == true) {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

↳ Acceptable, but === could be used here instead.

Preferred

<?php
        
        if ($expr === true) {
            // ...
        }
        
        ?>
         

Best Practices

5. E_STRICT Reporting

E_STRICT reporting MUST NOT trigger errors.

Incorrect

<?php
        
        $firstname = call_user_method('get_firstname', $User);
        
        ?>
         

↳ Incorrect because call_user_method (deprecated) will cause E_STRICT warning.

Correct

<?php
        
        $firstname = call_user_func(array($User, 'get_firstname'));
        
        ?>
         

Best Practices


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